History&Techniques Of Waste Management

On August 5, 2010, in Waste Management, by Jitendra

Waste management in simplest words means collecting waste products, transporting it & processing it to a new product or decomposing it for good.

History: – in olden days population density was less. Industrialization was not at its peak, so resources were exploited but on minimum basis & waste by humans was generally bio-degradable. But today’s scenario is different, population is growing at alarming rates, industrialization &urbanization is increasing.

Human consumption is becoming concentrated & so wastes are multiplying. Increase in waste leads to epidemics &diseases like malaria, plague, cholera which can prove to be fatal. So to keep the waste in control, developed &industrial oriented nations have started waste management. As waste products started increasing, our scientists have brought in new methods to recover resources from waste &reuse it. Waste management differs from developed &developing nations.eg: developed nations use new techniques to convert calorific content of the waste into electricity. Whereas in developing countries, laborers manually hunt for recyclable waste from the heap of garbage &then recycled, thus the waste can be minimized.

Techniques of waste management:-

1)      LANDFILL: it is one of the inexpensive methods of waste management. In this waste is dumped on an abandoned land. Be cautious that no toxic or hazardous waste gets dumped in landfill.

2)      INCINERATION: Toxic substances that cannot be dumped are burnt. This method is not much in action as this emits harmful pollutants leading to pollution.

3)      COMPOSTING: Organic wastes from homes &garden eg- food, plants, etc are decomposed, recycled & used as manure for agriculture purpose.

4)      MECHANICAL BIOLOGICALTREATMENT: Glass, plastic &other recyclable waste is put into waste treatment plant. Recyclable content from waste is taken & converted to calorific fuel that in turn is used by power plants.

5)      PYROLYSIS &GASIFICATION: Waste products are treated at high temperature7 high pressure. It’s a thermal technique. In pyrolysis, waste is converted into solid &liquid, in which solid is refined into carbon form& liquid got from the waste is used as energy giving oil. In gasification, waste is converted into synthetic gases: that are burnt to give high energy.

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