The waste materials like plant material, food scraps, and paper products are organic in nature and thus can be recycled by using biological composting and digestion processes for decomposing the organic matter. The resulting organic material that is obtained is recycled as mulch or compost for the purpose of agriculture or landscaping. The waste gaseous substance like methane, which is obtained from the process is captured and used for the production of electricity and heat. The major aim of biological processing is focussed on controlling and enhancing the natural process of decomposition of the organic matter.

Biological ReprocessingThere are many types of composting and digestion methods and technologies. They differ in complexity from simple home compost heaps to large scale industrial digestion of mixed domestic waste. The various methods of biological decomposition are classified as aerobic or anaerobic methods. There are some methods that use the hybrids of these two methods. The anaerobic digestion of the organic fraction of solid waste is more environmentally effective than landfill, or incineration. The biogas (methane) that resulted from it can be used for the production of both electricity and heat. It can also be used with a small up gradation of gas combustion engines or turbines. By upgrading it further to synthetic natural gas, it can be used into the natural gas network. It can also be used in the fuel cells that eliminate the pollution combustion products like SOx, NOx, pariculates, dioxin, etc.

The prevention of waste material being generated is known as waste reduction and it is an important method of waste management. It includes reuse of second-hand products and designing products that are reusable. The repairing of broken items instead of purchasing new and encouraging consumers to stay away from disposable products, are also part of the waste reduction. It also involves designing of the products that use less material for achieving the same target.

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