Water Treatment Plant

On October 6, 2011, in Water Treatment, by Sushant

Water treatment plants are important in cities and town areas in the different countries of the world. With the increase in industrialization and the resultant increasing levels of pollution, water treatment has become a necessity since natural water of streams, rivers and ponds have become naturally unfit for human consumption.

Water treatment plants may be of different kinds based on the type of treatment the water is subjected to. While there might be water treatment plants associated with different industries which need to purify water before using them in different manufacturing processes, water treatment plants of municipalities are for making drinking water fit for human consumption.

Water Treatment Plant In India there are various water treatment plants set up across the country. Some plants are set up for fluoride removal and some are for arsenic removal. Such water treatment plants are small in dimension and capacity and take in underground water through hand pumps for subjecting the same to fluoride and arsenic removal.

Most of the other water treatment plants deal with surface water and are concerned with removal of turbidity and disinfection. In many such plants the raw water appears clean due to less turbidity in the non monsoon periods. When the turbidity is low then alum or poly aluminum chloride is not passed and the water is simply passed through settling tanks and flocculators. Alum is a popular coagulant which is added in most water treatment plants. Instead of alum many water treatment plants are nowadays using PAC or even aluminum ferric sulphate such as those located in Mumbai, Nasik and Pune regions.

Bleaching powder is used in majority of water treatment plants for chlorination and some use liquid chlorine as well. However, the methods of administering such chemicals in water are not done precisely but approximation methods are used. Most water treatment plants use rapid sand filters. The water may be run through such filters for as long as 36 to 48 hrs to ensure effective filtration. Some water treatment plants use slow sand filters even. The filters are washed with backwater in varying intervals. While some plants use backwash process once in a week, other are not that frequent. There is the absence of standardization in cleaning of the different filter mechanisms in various water treatment plants.

The sludge and backwash waters are usually discharged into the nearby sewage system from most water treatment plants. In some cases the water is being considered for reuse purposes such as gardening. In some cases the sludge and backwash waters are discharged at the downstream area of the same source of water which is being treated.

These are the various ways in which water treatment plants operate in India.

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