There are various methods for the waste disposal employed throughout the world. The approach may vary from developed to developing countries or from rural to urban areas. Some of the widely used waste disposal methods are listed below.
Integrated waste management – This waste disposal method uses LCA life cycle analysis attempts for providing the most caring options for waste management. In case of a mixed municipal solid waste, the waste minimisation includes the separation and collection of waste followed by reuse and recycling of the non-organic fraction. It also includes the production of energy and compost/fertilizer from the organic waste fraction through the anaerobic digestion.
Plasma gasification – Plasma is a primarily an electrically charged or highly ionized gas. Lighting is an example of plasma which produces temperatures exceeding 12,600 °F (6,980 °C). In this method of waste disposal, a gasifier vessel uses characteristic plasma torches that operates at +10,000 °F (5,540 °C which is equals to the surface temperature of the Sun) for creating a gasification zone till 3,000 °F (1,650 °C) for the conversion of solid or liquid wastes into a syngas. During the treatment of municipal solid waste by this method, the waste’s molecular bonds break down due to intense heat in the vessels into elemental components. The process leads to the elemental destruction of waste and dangerous materials. The Plasma gasification provides new opportunities to the countries for the waste disposal, and additionally, it also allows the renewable power generation in an environmentally friendly manner.
Landfill – Landfill is the widely used method of waste disposal that involves burying the waste in land. Landfills were established usually in deserted or vacant quarries by mining voids or borrowing pits. It proves to be relatively cheap method of disposing of waste materials if it is properly designed and well-managed. The poorly designed or managed landfills can leads to adverse environmental impacts like wind-blown litter, generation of liquid leachate and attraction of vermin. The other common by product of landfills includes gas that is composed of methane and carbon dioxide. It is produced as organic waste that breaks down anaerobically, kills surface vegetation, and creates odour problems.